So you’re taking a class in which you must submit a copy of your transcript as part of the assignment. You’re wondering if this might be a violation of FERPA (I assume). As others indicate, there are plenty of legitimate reasons for faculty to view your transcript. If this were an English literature course, you might be able to claim that it’s not academically relevant. However, if this course is connected with academic or professional success, then it’s pretty obviously relevant.
I’m not going to claim that people in authority never abuse their authority. That would not be true. However, if I’m correct about the nature of the class, this is pretty obviously not an example of abuse.
If you feel you must, you can speak to the professor, but I encourage you to not get defensive. Treat this as a discussion, and one in which you might not get what you want.
As a final point, I typically ask for a transcript from any student who has asked me for a letter of recommendation. I also see a few dozen when reviewing scholarship applications. I couldn’t tell you what anyone did in any course, or what their GPAs are. The information is useful or necessary for what I have to do, but not personally interesting to me.